Monday, 22 March 2010


We are introduced to Chandrapore, a city that is part of the British Raj. It is separated into three parts: Mosque, Caves, and Temple.

Aziz is a poor doctor who has lived dutifully under British command, but has grown more frustrated with their treatment of him and his fellow Indians. He and his friends discuss the English and complain that they have changed in attitude over the years and have become more intolerant and cold. The British officials at the civil station in Chandrapore run a club that forbids Indians from attending and try to avoid any intimate friendships or relations with the natives. Mrs. Moore and Adela Quested come over from England to visit Ronny Heaslop, Mrs. Moore's son and Adela's betrothed. One night, Mrs. Moore encounters Dr. Aziz in a Mosque in the moonlight. They are at first startled by each other, but instantly become friends. Mrs. Moore and Adela are more liberal than Ronny and wish to see the "real India" and befriend Indians. Mr. Fielding, the Principal of the Government College, invites Adela and Mrs. Moore to his home for tea. He also invites Dr. Aziz, who he recently met and liked instantly, and his mystical Hindu colleague Professor Godbole. Fielding's tea party is very friendly and comfortable. Aziz feels so at ease, that he invites the women on an excursion to the caves at Marabar.
Aziz gets to the train station especially early so nothing will go wrong with the excursion. Mrs. Moore and Adela arrive on time, but Fielding and Godbole have not yet arrived. Aziz is nervous because he does not want to be left alone with the women, anticipating that trouble will arise. Ronny also disapproves of the women being left alone. He sends over a servant to follow them to make sure they are not left alone with Dr. Aziz. Fielding and Godbole arrive too late. They miss the train and Aziz is left to travel alone with Mrs. Moore and Adela. They put him at ease and assure him they are in good hands. At the caves, the weather is hot. The three go in and out of the caves, which all look similar. Within the caves is the haunting sound of an echo. While Mrs. Moore is in the cave, which is completely dark, she feels something touch her. But she is haunted by the sound of the echo, which takes over her thoughts. She decides to rest after her experience and let Adela and Aziz continue to explore other caves.
Adela becomes preoccupied with her engagement to Ronny and realizes she does not love him. Before she enters the cave, she asks Aziz about his wife and love. Adela and Aziz become separated eventually and Aziz can not find Adela. Aziz hears a car and later assumes that Miss Derek, Adela's friend, picked up Adela. Fielding joins Aziz and Mrs. Moore and they board the train back to Chandrapore. When the train pulls into the station, Aziz is arrested for charges that are unknown to him. Fielding publicly vows to defend Aziz and alienates himself from his countrymen. Aziz is charged with making improper advances to Adela in the caves. Fielding believes that Adela was hallucinating.
As the trial approaches, Mrs. Moore becomes more aloof. Adela seeks her support, but Mrs. Moore wants nothing to do with her or anyone else. Adela is haunted with the echoes from the caves, and when she realizes Aziz's innocence, the echoes go away. She tells Ronny about her doubts of Aziz's guilt and Mrs. Moore backs them up, but Ronny encourages her to go on with the trial and continue to press charges. Mrs. Moore, with the support and encouragement of her son, leaves for Britain before the trial. She dies en route, unable to endure the heat and travel conditions. At the trial, Adela continues to hear echoes. The courtroom becomes charged with emotion. Indians in the courthouse begin to call for Mrs. Moore to clear the name of Aziz. When Adela is called to the witness box, Mr. McBryde presses her until finally she admits that she is not sure if Aziz is really guilty. The judge drops the charges and all of the Indians in Chandrapore celebrate Aziz's victory. Adela walks the streets in a daze and is intercepted by Fielding. He invites her to his office for her safety.
Aziz becomes jealous while Adela and Fielding spend time together. Fielding pities her since her engagement has been broken and since she put her life on the line to tell the truth. He asks Aziz not to collect money from Adela for damages. Rumors begin to spread that he and Adela are having an affair. Fielding denies the rumor, but in the back of his mind, Aziz believes the rumor to be true and thinks Fielding will marry Adela for her money. After the trial, Aziz wants nothing to do with the British and begins to write poetry about the motherland and the nation. He decides to move out of the Raj to a free Indian state. Fielding and Adela return to England.
Two years have passed and Aziz and Godbole now live in Mau, an independent Hindu state. Godbole is the Minister of Education and Aziz has a clinic in town. The town is celebrating the arrival of a new God and is filled with singing and dancing in the streets. Godbole receives a note that Fielding and his new wife will be paying a visit. He tells Aziz who refuses to see them. Aziz has ignored all of Fielding's letters and postcards over the years and assumed that he has married Adela in London. Aziz runs into Fielding and his new brother-in-law (Ralph) by accident, when he goes out to attend to Ralph's bee sting.
Aziz treats Fielding coldly. Fielding asks why Aziz never returned his letters. Finally, Aziz realizes that Fielding did not marry Adela, but Mrs. Moore's daughter, Stella. Adela introduced them in London. Aziz continues to behave coldly and says he wants nothing to do with the British. Later on, Aziz checks up on Ralph's bee sting and continues to be cold, but is finally overcome by a spiritual epiphany brought on by the celebrations in town. He asks Ralph if he knows when a stranger becomes a friend and he answers yes. This was what his mother said to Aziz in the Mosque when they met. Finally, Aziz and Fielding become friends again. Aziz gives Fielding a letter to deliver to Adela forgiving her for her charges against him. He has left the past behind him. As Fielding and Aziz say their final good-byes, their horses pull them away from each other and they know they will never see each other again.

Dr. Aziz: Main character of the novel. Aziz is a young Muslim/Indian doctor who lives very simply in a modest bungalow in Chandrapore in order to support his three children. He is proud, charming, and emotional. He is a true 'Oriental', more concerned with feelings than intellect. His friendships with Fielding and Mrs. Moore show that he can bridge the gap between East and West. However, his experience in the trial proves that Indians and English can not be true friends in India under British rule.

Mrs. Moore: Mrs. Moore comes to India to visit her son and bring over Adela. Mrs. Moore personifies the religious theme of the novel. She is the symbol of spirit and universal love. Mrs. Moore came over to India as a good Christian, but her experience in India draws her to the spiritual world rather than the traditionally religious one. After her death, her character becomes even more important, especially in the trial. She is capable of loving and of being loved. Though they know each other for only a short time, Mrs. Moore and Aziz deeply love and respect each other.
Adela Quested: Comes to India to visit Ronny, the man she thinks she will marry, to see how he behaves at work. She wants to see the 'real India' for purely intellectual reasons. Unlike Aziz and Mrs. Moore, Adela is pure intellect. She does not feel things, but thinks them. She is plain and a prig, but generally decent. She is neither likable nor detestable.
Cyril Fielding: The schoolmaster of the Government College. He is a middle-aged man who is too set in his ways to be influenced by the other Anglo-Indians. He is liberal, strong, and intelligent. Like Adela, he is ruled more by intellect than love or emotion. He is a loyal friend, however, sticking by Aziz during the trial despite their racial differences and pressure from the British.
Minor Characters
Hamidullah: One of Aziz's best friends. He is a lawyer who was educated in Cambridge when relations between Indians and British were still good. He is disillusioned about the current state of relations between the British and Indians.
Mahmoud Ali: A young lawyer who has strong anti-British, pro-nationalist feelings. He storms out of the courtroom after his defense of Aziz, caught up in a nationalist fervor.
Ronny Heaslop: Adela's fiancee and Mrs. Moore's son. He is the City Magistrate of Chandrapore. He and his mother disagree about the way Indians are treated. He is a victim of the British school system and is steeped in unemotional officialism. Ronny believes his mother's religious and spiritual beliefs are a sign of senility.
Mr. and Mrs. Turton: The Collector of Chandrapore and his wife. Mr. Turton has been in India for more than 20 years and feels he knows the ways of the country and its people. He does not treat the Indians with fairness and believes British and Indians should never mix socially. His wife treats Indians very cruelly.
Mr. and Mrs. Callendar: The Inspector and his wife. Mr. Callendar is one of the main officials in Chandrapore.
Nawab Bahadur: A well-respected man. He is the 'show' Indian for the British and the only one they treat with respect. His fellow Indians also respects him. However, his real name is his real name is Mr. Zulfiqar (which he eventually changes his name back to). The name Nawab Bahadur is the title given to Mr. Zulfiqar by the British Indians, due to his loyalty towards them.
Mr. and Mrs. Bhattacharya: An Indian couple that Adela and Mrs. Moore meet. They invite Adela and Mrs. Moore to their home and never send a carriage. This makes Adela and Mrs. Moore question Indian manners.
Dr. Lal: A doctor and relative of the Bhattacharyas who is allied with Major Callendar. He is sent over as a spy to check on Aziz's illness. He befriends Aziz at the end of his trial.
Professor Godbole: The assistant of Fielding at government college and later the Minister of Education at Mau. He is quiet and contemplative. He is a very spiritual man and his Hindu song haunts Mrs. Moore.
Miss Derek: A British employee of the maharajah. She is Adela's friend and picks her up in her car after Adela's incident at the caves.
Nureddin: The handsome grandson of Nawab Bahadur.
Mr. and Mrs. McBryde: Mr. McBryde prosecutes the case against Aziz. His wife takes care of Adela before the trial.
Mr. Das: The Indian judge of Aziz's trial. He does a respectable job of taking control during the trial.
Ralph Moore: Mrs. Moore's clumsy, but sincere son.
Stella Moore: Mrs. Moore's daughter who marries Fielding. She and her brother are very different than their half brother Ronny. Their treatment of Indians is similar to their mother's.

Chandrapore: The city in India where the novel takes place. It is a part of British India. In the center of the town is the British club, which excludes Indians from membership.

Marabar Caves: The caves in the Marabar Hills, which Aziz promises to show Mrs. Moore and Adela. The picnic at the caves leads to the infamous incident in which Adela accuses Aziz of improprieties. 'Caves' is the title of the second part of the novel and represent the conflict between British and Indians.
Mosque: Mrs. Moore and Aziz meet at the Mosque and start their friendship. While the caves represent disunion between British and India, the Mosque (the title of the first part of the novel) represents a union.
Bridge Party: Turton's attempt to bring together British and Indians in a social setting. The party is superficial and unsuccessful.
Wife's Photograph: Showing Fielding the photograph of his dead wife is Aziz's way of lifting the purdah [separation of women and men]. By doing this he tries to promote a brotherhood between them.
Ghost: Part of the mysticism of India. Mrs. Moore believes she sees one, as she becomes more spiritually inclined. Aziz believes that believing in ghosts is a defect of Indians and sees it as backwards.
Echoes: The haunting sounds that are heard in the caves and afterwards, heard by Adela and Mrs. Moore. The echoes remain in Adela's head after the picnic and only when she exonerates Aziz do they go away. For Mrs. Moore, the 'boum' sound of the echoes replace her memory of religious verses and prayers.
Purdah: The tradition Indian separation and veiling of women. It is forbidden for a man to see another man's wife's face, unless they are brothers. Dr. Aziz first goes against purdah when he shows Fielding a photograph of his deceased wife. He then calls Fielding his brother, and Fielding asks if purdah will be removed when all men are brothers. Later on, Dr. Aziz writes that the institution of purdah stands in the way of India's freedom.

Quote 1: "So abased, so monotonous is everything that meets the eye, that when the Ganges comes down it might be expected to wash the excrescence back into the soil. Houses do fall, people are drowned and left rotting, but the general outline of the town persists, welling here, shrinking there, like some low but indestructible form of life." Chapter 1, pg. 2

Quote 2: "On the second rise is laid out the little civil station, and viewed hence Chandrapore appears to be a totally different place. It is a city of gardens. It is no city, but a forest sparsely scattered with huts. It is a tropical pleasaunce washed by a noble river." Chapter 1, pg. 4
Quote 3: "They all become exactly the same, not worse, not better. I give any Englishman two years, be he Turton or Burton. It is only the difference of a letter. And I give any English woman six months. All are exactly alike." Chapter 2, pg. 7
Quote 4: "He has found out our dinner hour, that's all, and chooses to interrupt us every time, in order to show his power." Chapter 2, pg. 12
Quote 5: "A Mosque by winning his approval let loose his imagination. The temple of another creed, Hindu, Christian, or Greek, would have bored him and failed to awaken his sense of beauty. Here was Islam, his own country, more than a Faith, more than a battle cry, more, much more...Islam an attitude towards life both exquisite and durable, where his body and his thoughts found their home." Chapter 2, pg. 16
Quote 6: "That makes no difference. God is here." Chapter 2, pg. 16
Quote 7: "As he strolled down hill beneath the lovely moon, and again saw the lovely mosque, he seemed to own the land as much as anyone who owned it. What did it matter if a few flabby Hindus had preceded him there, and a few chilly English succeeded." Chapter 2, pg. 22
Quote 8: "I want to see the real India." Chapter 3, pg. 22
Quote 9: "Come on, India's not as bad as all that. Other side of the earth, if you like, but we stick to the same old moon." Chapter 3, pg. 23
Quote 10: "Adventures do occur, but not punctually." Chapter 3, pg. 22
Quote 11: "In England the moon had seemed dead and alien; here she was caught in the shawl of night together with earth and all other stars. A sudden sense of unity, of kinship with the heavenly bodies, passed into the old woman and out, like water through a tank, leaving a strange freshness behind." Chapter 3, pg. 28
Quote 12: "It is easy to sympathize at a distance. I value more the kind word that is spoken close to my ear." Chapter 4, pg. 35
Quote 13: "No, no, this is going to far. We must exclude someone from our gathering, or we shall be left with nothing." Chapter 4, pg. 38
Quote 14: "No, it was not picturesque; the East, abandoning its secular magnificence, was descending into a valley whose farther side no man can see." Chapter 5, pg. 39
Quote 15: "Because India is part of the earth. And God has put us on the earth in order to be pleasant to each other. God is love." Chapter 5, pg. 53
Quote 16: "[H]e did not realize that 'white' has no more to do with a colour than 'God save the King' with a god, and that it is the height of impropriety to consider what it does connote." Chapter 7, pg. 65
Quote 17: "A mystery is only a high sounding term for a muddle. No advantage in stirring it up, in either case. Aziz and I know well that India is a muddle." Chapter 7, pg. 73
Quote 18: "Aziz was exquisitely dressed, from tie-pin to spats, but he had forgotten his back-collar stud, and there you have the Indian all over; inattention to detail, the fundamental slackness that reveals the race." Chapter 8, pg. 87
Quote 19: "Her hand touched his, owing to a jolt, and one of the thrills so frequent in the animal kingdom passed between them, and announced that their difficulties were only a lovers' quarrel." Chapter 8, pg. 95
Quote 20: "And when the whole world behaves as such, there will be no more purdah?" Chapter 11, pg. 126
Quote 21: "But he [Aziz] himself was rooted in society and Islam. He belonged to a tradition, which bound him, and he had brought children into the world, the society of the future. Though he lived so vaguely in this flimsy bungalow, nevertheless he was placed, placed." Chapter 11, pg. 131
Quote 22: "All the love he felt for her at the Mosque welled up again, the fresher for forgetfulness." Chapter 13, pg. 145
Quote 23: "You keep your religion, I mine. That is best. Nothing embraces the whole of India, nothing, nothing and that was Akbar's mistake." Chapter 14, pg. 160
Quote 24: "But suddenly, at the edge of her mind, Religion appeared, poor little talkative Christianity, and she knew that all its divine words from 'Let there be light' to 'It is finished' only amounted to 'boum.'" Chapter 14, pg. 166
Quote 25: "'I have had twenty five years experience of this country'--and twenty five years seemed to fill the waiting room with their staleness and ungeneroisity--'and during those twenty five years, I have never known anything but disaster result when English people and Indians attempt to be intimate socially.'" Chapter 17, pg. 182
Quote 26: "They are not to blame, they have not a dog's chance--we should be like them if we settled here." Chapter 18, pg. 184
Quote 27: "They had started speaking of women and children, that phrase that exempts the male from sanity when it has been repeated a few times." Chapter 20, pg. 203
Quote 28: "But every humane act in the East is tainted with officialism, and while honoring him they condemned Aziz and India." Chapter 20, pg. 208
Quote 29: "The sound had spouted after her when she escaped, and was going on still like a river that gradually floods the plain. Only Mrs. Moore could drive it back to its source and seal the broken reservoir. Evil was loose...she could hear it entering the lives of others." Chapter 22, pg. 215
Quote 30: "Her Christian tenderness had gone, or had developed into hardness, a just irritation against the human race; she had taken no interest at the arrest, asked scarcely any questions, and had refused to leave her bed on one awful last night of Mohurram, when an attack was expected on the bungalow." Chapter 22, pg. 221
Quote 31: "As soon as she landed in India, it seemed to her good, and when she saw the water flowing through the mosque tank, or the Ganges, or the moon caught in the shawl of night with all the other stars, it seemed a beautiful goal and an easy one." Chapter 23, pg. 231
Quote 32: "by what right did they claim so much importance in the world and assume the title of civilization?" Chapter 24, pg. 242
Quote 33: "It was revolting to him [Ronny] to hear his mother travestied into Esmiss Esmoor, a Hindu goddess." Chapter 24, pg. 250
Quote 34: "Ronny's religion was of the sterilized Public School brand, which never goes bad, even in the tropics. Wherever he entered, mosque, cave or temple, he retained the spiritual outlook of the fifth form, and condemned as 'weakening' any attempt to understand them." Chapter 28, pg. 286
Quote 35: "The poem for Mr. Bhattacharya never got written, but it had an effect. It led him towards the vague and bulky figure of a mother-land. He was without natural affection for the land of his birth, but the Marabar Hills drove him to it. Half closing his eyes, he attempted to love India." Chapter 30, pg. 298
Quote 36: "Suspicion in the Oriental is a sort of malignant tumor, a mental malady, that makes him self-conscious and unfriendly suddenly; he trusts and mistrusts at the same time in a way the Westerner can not comprehend. It is his demon, as the Westerner's is hypocrisy." Chapter 32, pg. 311
Quote 37: "Thus Godbole, though she was not important to him, remembered an old woman he had met in Chandrapore days. Chance brought her into his mind while it was in this heated state, he did not select her, she happened to occur among the throng of soliciting images, a tiny splinter, and he impelled her by his spiritual force to that place where completeness can be found." Chapter33, pg. 321
Quote 38: "My heart is for my own people henceforward." Chapter 35, pg. 339
Quote 39: "Then you are an Oriental." Chapter 36, pg. 349
Quote 40: "But the horses didn't want it-they swerved apart; the earth didn't want it, sending up rocks through which riders must pass single file; the temples, the tank, the jail, the palace, the birds, the carrion, the Guest House, that came into view as they issued from the gap and saw Mau beneath: they didn't want it, they said in their hundred voices, 'No, not yet,' and the sky said, 'No, not there.'" Chapter 37, pg. 362

The Marabar Hills are described as the fists and fingers of the south. Despite their human characteristics, the hills are imposing. Earth here is more impressive than any of the people in Chandrapore.
Chapter 3
Earth 2: The women are fascinated by the moonlight, which has a mystical quality to it. However, a British stranger reminds them that in British India, though they might be halfway around the world from home, they stick to the same moon. Therefore, there is little spirit or imagination in the India of the English. Mrs. Moore and Adela hope for something more.
Chapter 3
Earth 3: Looking into the sky, Mrs. Moore sees a moon that is very different from the moon in England. This moonlight filled her with a sense of unity with nature and the heavens the way it never had at home.
Chapter 10
Earth 4: The heat of April, an aspect of the earth in India, makes things quite unbearable and influences the behavior of those who live there.
Chapter 18
Earth 5: McBryde tries to argue that the hot climate and geographic conditions of India drive the Indians to behave the way they do. He contends that nature has control over man in India and if the British were to endure this climate, they would behave the same way.
Chapter 23
Earth 6: When Mrs. Moore first came to India, the mystical forces of the earth overtook her. However, after the engagement of Ronny and Adela, she becomes burdened with the duties of reality and this disrupts her union with spirit and earth.
Chapter 24
Earth 7: The echoes of the cave haunt Adela and make her question her charges against Aziz. The sound of the caves haunts her until she reveals the truth about Aziz and clears her conscience.
Chapter 37
Earth 8: The earth prevents Aziz and Fielding from riding back to each other. It prevents the continuation of their friendship, at least until the British leave India.

Love 1: Though they have broken off the engagement, the bumpy ride in Nawab Bahadur's car awakens Adela and Ronny's feelings of love, or at least lust.
Chapter 11
Love 2: Aziz and Fielding discuss marriage. Aziz admits that he fell in love with his wife after they were married. Sharing the photo of his wife with him is an act of brotherly love. Fielding also admits that he has never married or never plans to. He says he is too old to fall in love.
Chapter 15
Love 3: Adela begins to doubt her love for Ronny. She realizes she is not in love with him and questions if she is capable of loving another. She thinks she is too intellectual to be in love.
Chapter 27
Love 4: Fielding can not understand why Aziz loved Mrs. Moore so much, since she had not been there for Aziz, especially after the cave incident. He tells Fielding that Mrs. Moore was oriental in her emotions--she never measured love. Fielding is very western and Aziz feels he measures his emotions too much.
Chapter 28
Love 5: Ronny terminates the engagement with Adela. The two had never been in love and were probably incapable of loving each other.
Chapter 29
Love 6: Both Adela and Fielding have given up on love and think they will never love anyone.
Chapter 36
Love 7: Ralph tells Aziz that his mother loved him very much. Though Aziz is very short with Ralph, Ralph overlooks the behavior and assures him that he is a friend, though he is a stranger. This oriental attitude is like his mother's. Ralph proves he is capable of loving on instinct the way his mother had.

Nationalism 1: The British National Anthem inspires feelings of power rather than patriotism. England's role in India is one of power and control.
Chapter 14
Nationalism 2: While discussing Akbar, a Hindu figure who had a unifying force, Aziz tells Mrs. Moore and Adela that India cannot be united. As a Muslim, he feels divided from the other half of India.
Chapter 24
Nationalism 3: Adela begins to feel guilty about the notion of the British as a civilizing force. She contemplates who gave them the right to control a country. At the same time, McBryde uses a "scientific" approach to prove the racial and national superiority of the British over the Indians.
Nationalism 4: Mahmoud Ali becomes vocal about the unfair role of the British in India. He stands up for Indian nationalism and storms out of the court.
Chapter 25
Nationalism 5: The otherwise pro-British Nawab Bahadur, the most diplomatic and respected of Indians, becomes so inspired by the cruel treatment of his son and the treatment of Aziz by the British, that he renounces his name and title for his Islamic name.
Chapter 30
Nationalism 6: The trial awoke the nationalist spirit in Aziz. He now began to think of the motherland in his poetry.
Chapter 35
Nationalism 7: Aziz expresses his wish not to associate with any British people. He even pushes away the friendship of Fielding.
Chapter 37
Nationalism 8: Aziz and Fielding part ways, knowing they can never be friends as long as the British continue to control India.1: At the Mosque, Aziz feels renewed. He feels most at home there. His body and spirit are unified by his religion in the Mosque. He is more loyal to Islam than to his country.
Chapter 4
Religion 2: Two missionaries discuss God and how he does not exclude any creature from his house. This conversation is ironic against the backdrop of the colonized India.
Chapter 5
Religion 3: Mrs. Moore is a religious woman. She talks to Ronny about the bad and unchristian treatment of the British towards the Indians. She says that God loves everyone and since India is part of the earth, God loves the Indians.
Chapter 7
Religion 4: Religious thought is divided in India. Aziz blames an Indian couple's bad manners on the fact that they are Hindu.
Chapter 13
Religion 5: To put Aziz at ease when Fielding and Godbole do not arrive, she tells him that they will all be Muslims together--signifying their equality.
Chapter 14
Religion 6: Aziz tells Mrs. Moore and Adela that he can not accept the Hindu notion of universality. He believes it is best if every one adheres to his own religion.
Religion 7: In the caves, the 'boum' sound erases all religious thoughts from Mrs. Moore's mind. The echo becomes more powerful than her religion.
Chapter 22
Religion 8: In the aftermath of the incident at the caves, Mrs. Moore loses her interest in religion and all other aspects of life.
Chapter 24
Religion 9: In her despair, Adela strays from her usually intellectual ways and begins praying again.
Chapter 24
Religion 10: In her absence, the Indians at the trial begin to chant Mrs. Moore's name. By mispronouncing her name as Esmiss Esmoor, they have called her the name of a Hindu goddess.
Chapter 33
Religion 11: Mrs. Moore appears in Godbole's head during a spiritual fervor. The visit by Mrs. Moore completes him and brings him closer to God. God is love.West vs. East 1: English people are civil, or even friendly, towards natives when they first arrive in India. However, the longer they stay in India, the greater the gulf grows between them and the Indians. Though the English and Indians are both physically in the East, there is a clear separation between Eastern and Western culture in colonized India.
Chapter 3
West vs. East 2: Adela confronts Ronny about his treatment of Indians. Still fresh in India, she feels the bridge between East and West can be crossed with pleasant and equal behavior. Ronny advises her that her naïve perspective will change the longer she stays in the country.
Chapter 4
West vs. East 3: Many Indians are skeptical about the sincerity of Turton's invitation to his Bridge Party. Nawab Bahadur, a person who is respected by British and Indians, convinces his countrymen to attend the party.
Chapter 5
West vs. East 4: Adela and Mrs. Moore are sad that there is no interaction between the British hosts and the Indian guests. The Bridge Party does not create a bridge between the people.
Chapter 7
West vs. East 5: Fielding and Aziz forge an instant friendship despite their racial differences.
Chapter 8
West vs. East 6: Aziz tells Nawab Bahadur's grandson that believing in superstition and evil spirits is a defect of the East. The West has advanced, he believes, because they believe in reason and logic.
Chapter 16
West vs. East 7: Fielding tries to tell Aziz that he should not think about the picnic in terms of East and West, but simply in terms of friendship.
Chapter 17
West vs. East 8: Turton, who believes his years of experience in India have made him wise and knowledgeable, says that Indians and English are incapable of interacting on an intimate basis. That is why he feels there should exist a great distance between them.
Chapter 27
West vs. East 9: Aziz tries to explain to Fielding that Mrs. Moore, though an old British woman, was an Oriental at heart. She had an Eastern way of relating to people. Aziz considers measuring emotion, as Fielding does, to be a Western trait.
Chapter 37
West vs. East 10: Aziz and Fielding part ways, knowing they will never see each other again. The notion that Indians and British can never be intimate friends while the British control India seems to hold true.

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